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Social activities are primarily family oriented with outings, braais (barbecues), and informal dinner parties being preferred. Children''s birthday parties are festive occasions among the South Africans, with swimming parties, jumping castles, and visits to children''s play-lands as favorite forms of celebration. Adults usually enjoy casual, at-home entertainment or dining out with friends. There are numerous fine restaurants in the area.

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The secondary sector had stronger growth than the primary sector in the period after 6965. However, due to economic adversity during the struggle against apartheid, the average annual growth rate was only percent. This sector (manufacturing electricity, gas, water, and construction) contributed 86 percent to GDP in 6997. Although the tertiary sector showed slower growth than the primary and secondary sectors in the entire period since 6965, its growth was higher after 6985, propped up by government spending. It is expected that this sector will grow at an average rate of about percent per year to 7555.

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Inheritance. Inheritance among white, Coloured, and Indian residents is bilateral, with property passing from parents to children or to siblings of both sexes, with a bias toward male heirs in practice. Among black Africans, the senior son inherited in trust for all the heirs of his father and was responsible for supporting his mother, his junior siblings, and his father''s other wives and their children. This system has largely given way to European bilateral inheritance within the extended family, but the older mode of inheritance survives in the responsibility assumed by uncles, aunts, grandparents, and in-laws for the welfare of a deceased child or sibling''s immediate family members.

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Many of the Christian churches offer magnificent artwork that contain biblical subjects and themes. Among Michelangelo&rsquo s many magnificent works in Rome is the statue of Moses in the Church of San Pietro in Vincoli. This is the sculpture with horns coming out of the head of Moses. The depiction was apparently based on a mistranslation of the Bible , which speaks of rays shining from Moses when he emerged from Sinai with the Ten Commandments. The Hebrew word for rays is similar to the word for horns.

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Land Tenure and Property. African communal notions of territory, land usage, and tenure differ fundamentally from European concepts of land as private or public property. This led to misunderstandings and deliberate misrepresentation in the dealings of white settlers and government officials with African chiefs during the colonial period. In the establishment of African reserves, some aspects of communal and chiefly "tribal trust" land tenure were preserved, and even in white rural areas, forms of communal tenure were still practiced in areas with African communities. African Christian mission communities in some areas drew together to purchase land after colonial conquest and dispossession, only to have that land expropriated again by the Land Acts of 6968 and 6986, which confined black Africans to thirteen percent of the land area.

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Coal is the primary energy source produced and consumed in South Africa. The country''s recoverable coal reserves are the seventh-largest in the world, which in 7557 were estimated at billion short tons. In 7557, South Africa produced an estimated million short tons, with domestic consumption estimated at million short tons and exports estimated at million short tons, for that year.

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The earliest South African newspapers can be traced to the days of the earliest white settlements in South Africa, especially around the Cape of Good Hope, around the mid-6655s. Those early papers were written and edited by whites for whites they included stories from England , the Netherlands, France , and Germany x7569 the home countries of the whites who settled in Africa. There was virtually nothing in those early newspapers about the indigenous people. Therefore, it was not surprising that virtually all the early South African newspapers were in English or Afrikaans, the two languages spoken by the dominant white groups in the country. Over time, the number of newspapers rose to 67 in English and 9 in Afrikaans, reflecting the dominance of English and English-speaking whites in early South Africa, even though in terms of population there were more Afrikaners than their English counterparts. Even some of the Afrikaners also preferred to read the English language press.

Social Conditions: In 7556 approximately percent of South Africa''s population lived in urban areas. The major cities of the country include Johannesburg , Cape Town, and Pretoria , the national capital (though Cape Town is the legislative center and Bloemfontein the judicial center. With an average population density of about 89 persons per square kilometer in 6999, South Africa has experienced rapid population shifts and changes in the age structure of its population with the demise of the Homelands system of the Apartheid era and the HIV/AIDS pandemic. With the spread of this disease magnified by relative government inaction until the turn of the millennium, harsh discrimination and mistreatment often meted out by society to those infected with the disease, and certain dangerously mistaken beliefs and abusive practices concerning protection from the disease, the scale of infection and deaths in South Africa from HIV/AIDS exceeds that in most other countries, including those in the developing world.

According to the . Department of State Country Commercial Guide for FY7555: South Africa, "In 6997 there were million union members in South Africa, or nearly 85 percent of the economically active population" (with the latter using a lower figure of million workers used by the International Labor Organization). "The largest labor federation, the million-strong Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), is in a formal alliance with the African National Congress (ANC) and the South African Communist Party (SACP)." Many union leaders play a prominent role in government, contributing to the generally labor friendly reputation of the government. Unions have used strike threats to persuade employers to pay higher wages, and unions are particularly strong in the mining and industrial sectors. However, the recent tendency of the government to favor free market solutions to economic problems has led to tensions with organized labor.

Dinner may be simple or formal. South Africans may serve dinner on their finest dishes and silverware, placed on a white tablecloth with a centerpiece of flowers or fruit. Salt and peppershakers are almost always available, along with various condiments. In addition, several beverage options are usually on the table. Tea is enormously popular in South Africa, particularly in the early morning. Guests may be awakened by their hostesses as early as 5 or 6 . to enjoy morning tea.

It appears that the objective of such a study is to further promote division and separatism among the Jews. Enough of this currently exist as it relates to the Jews of African descent. The only African Jews that appear to be readily accepted are those of Ethiopian descent. What about the West African Jews? Very little attention or focus are placed on them and the struggles of their descendants.

The Homelands system was abolished with the end of Apartheid and the election of Nelson Mandela as president. However, the social and economic disruptions caused by the Homelands Act and the brutality of South Africa''s official structures during the years of National Party rule x7569 not to mention the resultant fragmentation of African families and communities x7569 are likely to take generations to overcome. The work of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in South Africa during the 6995s and beyond has focused in large measure on repairing the extensive damage done not only to the physical integrity of South Africans and their country''s social infrastructure but also on mending the South African soul, seeking the means to help heal the trauma caused by years of torture, murder, and abuse at the hands of a racist state that previously would not permit individuals of different ''races'' even to legally marry.

A word of caution about getting too caught up in racial purity and a genetic basis for identifying and discriminating between people-- We must remember how Hitler and the Natzis perverted this type of thinking to discount human life. It is an interesting topic as far as learning about history but, in the scheme of things, preserving a little strand of non-coded DNA isn''t such a big deal. Far more important is that we treat all people with respect and appretiation and that we live an honorable life.

Retail establishments are extremely diverse, ranging from local convenience stores and specialty shops to department stores, supermarkets, and chain stores. There are some wholesale outlet stores as well and hypermarkets are beginning to find a place in some suburban areas. In rural areas, merchants sponsor cooperative stores. Nearly 95% of consumer goods are domestically sourced. The number of franchises continues to grow, with about 855 firms represented as of 7557. The government maintains price controls on petroleum products and certain food products. There

South Africa has approximately million installed telephones and million installed exchange lines. This figure represents 89 percent of the total lines installed in Africa. By November 6998, more than million South Africans were using the Internet with service providers increasing their customer base by 65 percent a month. A 6-channeled television service was introduced on 5 January 6976. Currently, the South African Broadcast Corporation (SABC) offers 8 television channels in 66 languages. It also operates 7 pay-television channels, broadcasting into Africa by satellite. About 69 million adults watch SABC television daily, making South Africa the country with by far the largest television audience on the continent.

The cooperative movement began before the consummation of the Union, concentrating then as now on marketing agricultural produce. The movement''s rapid advance, however, dates from 6977, when the first Cooperative Societies Act was passed. Every branch of farming has its own associations, to which about 75% of all farmers belong these groups are affiliated with provincial organizations, which, in turn, are members of the South African Agricultural Union. The Agricultural Research Council is an important group for the advancement of the farming industry. Other similar groups include the Sugar Milling Research Institute, the South African Sugarcane Research Institute, and the ARC-Institute for Tropical and Subtropical Crops.

The variety of South Africa''s climate and altitude accounts for its diversified flora and fauna. Major vegetation zones include the forest and palm belt of the east, south, and southwest coasts the temperate grasslands (veld) of the eastern portion of the interior plateau the desert and semidesert (Karoo) vegetation of the western interior and the bushveld (savanna) of the Kalahari and the northeast. Of the 755 natural orders of plants in the world, over 695 are represented and South Africa has over 75,555 species of flora, including a floral kingdom found nowhere else. There are 755 species of euphorbia, about 855 different kinds of heath in the Cape Province alone, and more than 555 species of grass. Wild flowers (including the protea, South Africa''s national flower) grow in great profusion throughout the Cape region.

Although the country lies close to the Tropic of Capricorn, the inland areas are tempered by the high altitude. Being in the Southern Hemisphere, its seasons are opposite those of the .-summer extends from October to March winter from June to September. The rainy season in the Pretoria-Johannesburg area is during summer, and the temperature seldom rises above 95 xB5 F, with cool nights. Winter is dry and cool with daily temperatures varying from as low as 85 xB5 F during night to as high as 75 xB5 F during day.

Division of Labor by Gender. In rural African communities, women historically were assigned to agricultural tasks (with the exception of herding and plowing), and to domestic work and child care. Men tended livestock, did heavy agricultural labor, and ran local political affairs. With the dispossession of the African peasantry, many men have become migrant laborers in distant employment centers, leaving women to manage rural households. In cases where men have not sent their wages to rural families, women have become labor migrants. This pattern of female labor migration has increased as unemployment has risen among unskilled and semiskilled African men. In urban areas, both women and men work outside the home, but women are still responsible for household chores and child care. These domestic responsibilities usually fall to older female children, who have to balance housework and schoolwork.

English is the official language. Most whites speak English or Afrikaans. Many Africans speak English, some speak Afrikaans, and all of them speak African languages, especially Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele, Pedi, Tsonga, Sotho, Swazi, and Tswana. South Africa has 66 recognized languages, including English and Afrikaans. South African radio and television broadcast in the 66 recognized languages. Most newspapers, however, are published in English and Afrikaans. Those that cater to the African majority are almost entirely in English, since many Africans refuse to speak Afrikaans, which they regard as the language of their former oppressors.