Posted: 2017-10-13 05:38
This glossary contains a number of recurrent terms found on the present site which may not be clear to all readers, especially when employed within the context of an art discussion. Some of these terms, signaled by an icon of the Vermeer's monogram and signature, are also discussed as they relate to specifically Vermeer's art. Each of the four sections of the glossary can be accessed from the menu top of each page of the glossary entries.
"An opaque paint is one that transmits no light and can readily be made to cover or hide what is under it. A semi-opaque paint transmits very little light, but is incapable of concealing dark colors and strong markings under it unless an unusually heavy coat is applied. A transparent material transmits light freely when a transparent glaze of oil color, for example, is placed over another color , it produces a clean mixture of the two hues without much loss of clarity. A semi-transparent paint transmits much light, but is not clear a semi-transparent glaze, when placed over another color, will produce a pale or cloudy effect because of the reflection of light from the surface. Semi-transparency and semi-opacity are also known as translucency. Pigments are generally classed as opaque, semi-opaque, and transparent.
An objection was that if Pan , the chimpanzee was our ancestor, why were no such fossils found with Australopithecus in eastern Africa. Hominid fossils (family Hominidae) as old as seven or eight million years have been found in Ethiopia, Kenya and Tanzania, but no chimpanzee or gorilla ancestors (family Panidae) occur in the same area. Molecular biology, biochemistry and cytogenetics all show that humans and chimpanzees evolved from a common ancestor. A solution to this puzzle came from vertebrate distribution maps and geological history. Africa's Rift Valley runs from north to south. Vegetation and climate differ dramatically on each side of this rift. To the west are woods and forest where chimpanzees are found and to the east are grasslands where only hominid fossils are found.
The concept of timelessness is frequently evoked in conjunction with Vermeer's art. By avoiding the purely incidental and anecdotal detail of daily life, where gestures become tied to specific events, Vermeer was able to convey the universal, rather than the temporal realm of the everyday life. "The emotions of longing and expectations which he so often incorporated in his work provide a thematic means for suggesting the extension of time, a quality he enhanced with purity of compositions, purposefulness of human gaze and gesture, and evocative treatment if light. Through these means Vermeer not only succeeded in transforming a momentary activity into a timelessness vision, but also created images whose moods and concerns continue to speak directly to viewers far removed from the world in which he lived." 75
When light encounters a material, it can interact with it in several different ways. These interactions depend on the wavelength of the light and the nature of the material. In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered. Transparent materials appear clear, with the overall appearance of one color, or any combination leading up to a brilliant spectrum of every color.
[ 96 79'"N, 76 76'"W ] [ possible artifact] In research I discovered legends of another ancient tower located on the west side of the bay. Memories of this remain in the alternative name of McSparran's Hill as "Tower Hill" and also that section of the Boston/New York post Road - US rt. 6 - called Tower Hill Road. In examining satellite photos I was astonished to discover an area that appears to have at one time contained a tower of similar proportions to the Newport Tower. Several times I have examined the field where it seems to have stood and could not determine any thing at ground level.
By the sixteenth century, the Flemish towns of Oudenaarde, Brussels, Geraardsbergen and Enghien had become the centers of European tapestry production. In the seventeenth century, Flemish tapestries were arguably the most important productions, with many specimens of this era still extant, demonstrating the intricate detail of pattern and color embodied in painterly compositions , often of monumental scale.
Today, the visual arts are art forms such as painting , sculpture, architecture, drawing , printmaking, design, crafts, photography, video and filmmaking. Current usage of the term includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain at the turn of the twentieth century, the term " artist " was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media, such as ceramics. Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts, maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of the arts. Also included within the visual arts are the applied arts, such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art.
Thixotropic paint behaves differently from normal paint it "stands up'" as it were and creates a peculiar relief. Thixotropic paint is a liquid or paste paint that behaves like solid at rest, but when undergoing shear stress, such as brushing or knifing, its viscosity lowers and it begins to flow. Thick, lush passages of paint could be as probably easily executed in just a handful of deft strokes with a stiff brush and a mayonnaise-like paint instead of laborious multi-layering technique. Thixotropic is particularly associated with lead white , the ubiquitous, backbone white pigment used from antiquity. However, even after years of intense study and much experimentation, by the part of both scientific and the practicing figurative artists communities. it is not fully understood how Rembrandt was able to produce thixotropic paint.
#66, [ Sebac , ME ] [ 95 69'"N, 69 59'"W ] [artifact] Appears as grave marker translates as," Aud owns" ( Aud a common woman&rsquo s name in Viking culture.) Goodwin. Appears quite far inland but marginally possible.
Raking light is the illumination of objects from a light source at a strongly oblique angle almost parallel to the object's surface (between 5º and 85º with respect to the examined surface). Under raking light, tool marks, paint handling, canvas weave, surface imperfections and restorations can be visualized better than with light coming from different angles. In some instances raking light may help reveal pentimenti or changes in an artist's intention. In the case of wall paintings, raking light helps show preparatory techniques such as incisions in the plaster support.
The vanity of all earthly things was one of the most popular themes of Dutch still life painter. They often included objects which suggested the transience of life: skulls, bones, hourglass, flowers or a snuffed-out candle. There were countless other symbols the sea-shell, a collector's item, represented wealth musical instruments symbolized the pleasure of the senses. The vanitas tradition was particularly strong in Leiden, possibly because the university there made the town the center of theological study. It has been suggested that the vanitas painting played a role in Dutch painting parallel to that of the crucifixes and religious paintings in Catholic countries.
Holland is more intimately linked to the sea that any other nation on the earth. It is not surprising, therefore, that a number of Dutch artists devoted their careers to seascapes. "The sea was significant in a variety of ways to the Dutch. They were constantly warring with it in the struggle to increase and retain their land. On the other hand, the sea was the source of their wealth and their economic stability. The United Provinces was a great maritime trading nation this was the backbone of its economy. The Dutch relied on the sea for a crucial part of their food supply. The herring, so often represented in still life paintings, was indeed a national treasure. Salted, it remained edible and provided sustenance during the long sea voyages that promoted Dutch prosperity, and it also enriched the economy as a major item for export. The sea was also the scene of their military successes. Dutch national heroes were admirals rather than generals the great tomb sculptures in Dutch churches are tombs of admirals. Paintings of seascapes reflected the specific maritime interests of the Dutch people, and there seems to have been a large market for them in the seventeenth century.
A. garhi has larger postcanine dentition than A. afarensis. A. garhi lacks the dental, facial, and cranial features shared by A. aethiopicus, A. robustus , and A. boisei. Australopithecus garhi is distinguished from A. africanus and other early Homo species by its primitive frontal, facial, palatal, and subnasal morphology (Asfaw et al 6999).
#67, [ 96 98'"N, 75 87'"W ] [ Aptuxet , MA ]. Artifact runestone well known at one time in local circles as it was used as a step in a local church. It was revered by local Indians and was translated to say "Jesus amply provides for us here and in Heaven". Again, remember that all but one of the Vinland voyagers were Christian, Catholic and at the time Vikings were generally somewhat literate.
A sketch is a rapidly executed depiction of a subject or complete composition , which is usually produced in preparation for a more detailed and completed work. "Despite the interest in the outdoors, the Dutch landscape painters rarely painted their. His usual practice was to make sketches of scenes that caught his eye then, returning to his studio , he would begin to paint, using his drawings for reference. And since he might use as many as a dozen drawings from different locations in a single painting, the final scene was often entirely the product of his imagination." 65
Robust Australopiths were vegetarians, with heavy, specialised teeth. Such animals would not have much use for complex tools. This diet doomed them to extinction as the evolutionary pressures of this route forced greater and greater morphological specialisation. We see a trend in the increasingly specialised characteristics of the line, leading to a branch yielding A. africanus about million years ago, then to A. robustus and then A. boisei , without selecting for a larger brain and finally becoming extinct. Their facial architecture becomes increasingly bulky through time, selected for greater chewing forces to handle their herbivorous diet. Their adaptive solution to selective pressures was morphological instead of behavioural. Herbivores typically lack the intellectual challenges faced by predators and do not need a cooperative culture.
This kind of repoussoir was generally placed on the left-hand side of the composition because we tend to rapidly scan images darting from the left to the right as when reading. By consequence, Vermeer's repoussoir is suited to be looked at by the reading eye, which, after a brief moment's delay at the repoussoir , is directed toward the key moment of the representation of the painter and his model and explores the rest of the painting thereafter.
Laetoli footprints : according to most creationists, these are modern human footprints that are dated at million years ago, long before humans were meant to exist. Creationists emphasize the close resemblance between these and modern human footprints, but often neglect to mention their extremely small size and the fact they may also be similar to the feet of the australopithecines living at the same time. Exactly how similar they are is a matter of some debate.
The success of decorative tapestry can be partially explained by its portability. Kings and noblemen could"roll up and transport tapestries from one residence to another. In churches, they were displayed on special occasions. Tapestries were also on the walls of castles for insulation during winter, as well as for decorative display. In the Middle Ages and Renaissance , a rich tapestry panel woven with symbolic emblems, mottoes, or coats of arms called a baldachin, canopy of state or cloth of state was hung behind and over a throne as a symbol of authority. The seat under such a canopy of state would normally be raised on a dais.